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Safety Glossary



SAFE DISTANCE : (1) For an actuating control used as a safeguarding device, the distance, between the control and the nearest point of operation hazard, that ensures that the operator cannot release the actuating control and reach the hazard before the slide can be stopped by brake actuation. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SAFE DISTANCE SAFEGUARDING: A method of workpiece positioning and operator location that eliminates he need for the operator to be in or near the hazard area during the hazardous portion of the [machine] cycle. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SAFE HOLDING DISTANCE: A method of safeguarding that protects the operator by requiring the operator to hold the workpiece at a distance from the hazard area such that the operator cannot reach the hazard portion of the [machine] cycle. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SAFE OPENING SAFEGUARDING: A method of safeguarding that limits access to the hazard area by the size of openings, or by closing off access, when the workpiece is in place in the [machine]. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SAFE POSITION OF CONTROLS SAFEGUARDING: A method of safeguarding that requires the operator  to be positioned at the [machine] control at a distance from the hazard area such that the operator cannot reach the hazard area during the hazardous portion of the [machine] cycle. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SAFEGUARD: To make safe. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SAFEGUARDING: Methods of protection of personnel from hazards using guards, safeguarding devices or methods, or safe work procedures. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SAFEGUARDING DEVICE: A means that detects or prevents inadvertent access to a hazard. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SAFEGUARDING PROCEDURES: Means of safeguarding service personnel during tasks requiring power to the [machine] and removal of point of operation safeguarding. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SAFETY BLOCK: A prop that is inserted between opposing tool or [machine] members. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SAFETY CATEGORY:  Hazard classes (B, 1, 2, 3, 4) per DIN prEN 954-1.

SAFETY INTERLOCKS:  Three basic types of interlocks can be used with easily removed or opened barrier guards: (1) plug and socket type, (2) switches, and (3) captured key devices.

SAFETY RELAYS:  Safety relays must be used in all control circuits for safeguarding devices such as interlocks, emergency stops, lights screens, safety mats and two hand controls to comply with the control reliability requirement. Safety relays have positive guided or captive contacts which are very different from conventional "ice cube" relays. The actuator (mechanical linkage) for the positive-guided relay is place much closer to the contacts than on the conventional relay. This placement of the actuator and the lack of gap tolerance on the positive-guided relay insures a consistent relationship between the normally-open contacts and the normally-closed contacts. The positive-guided relay is guaranteed to maintain a minimum .5 mm distance between its normally-closed contacts when the normally-open contact is held closed.  This characteristic makes the positive-guided relay a preferred relay when designing safety circuits for generating a safe output. A control reliable circuit requires three positive-guided relays to provide redundancy and monitoring.

SEV:  Swiss Electrical Engineering Association.

:  Switzerland Division of Work Safety

SAW FRAME: On a hacksaw machine, the movable assembly that supports the cutting tool. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TWO-HAND CONTROLS:  Two-hand controls are a set of switches that are actuated to start a machine cycle.  Certain designs required constant actuation throughout the machine cycle. The switches must be mounted far enough apart to insure that one arm cannot actuate both switches. Normally anti-tiedown circuitry is incorporated which insures that one switch cannot be tied or taped down and the machine operated with one control. The control circuitry requires that each switch open and close on each cycle.  The control circuit must be control reliable. 

SAFEGUARD:  A barrier guard, device or safety procedure designed for the protection of personnel. (R15.06)

SAFETY BLOCK:  A prop that, when inserted between the upper and lower dies or between the bolster plate and the face of the slide, prevents the slide from falling of its own deadweight.

SAFETY PROCEDURE:  A set of instructions designed for the protection of personnel. (R15.06)

:  The integrated total system, including the pertinent elements of the press, the controls, the safeguarding and any required supplemental safeguarding, and their interfaces with the operator, and the environment, designed, constructed and arranged to operate together as a unit, such that a single failure or single operating error will not cause injury to personnel due to point of operation hazards.

SAW FRAME: On a hacksaw machine, the movable assembly that supports the cutting tool. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SCARA ROBOT:  A cylindrical robot having two parallel rotary joints and provides compliance in one selected plane.  (ISO 8373)  Note: SCARA derives from Selectively Compliant Arm for Robotic Assembly.

SCRAP: (1) Fragments of stock removed in the manufacturing process. (2) Residual waste or discarded material. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SEGMENTS: Abrasive bodies in various standard shapes that, when individually chucked in suitable holding mechanisms, form a grinding unit. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SEMI-AUTOMATIC-AUTOMATIC FEEDING:  Feeding wherein the material or part being processed is placed within or removed from the point of operation by an auxiliary means controlled by operator on each stroke of the press.

SEMI-AUTOMATIC MODE: With a horizontal hydraulic extrusion presses, the operating mode that requires one or more control actions by the operator per [machine] cycle. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
SEGMENT CYCLE TIME:  The average time required by the robot to travel through one segment of the standard test path. (R15.05-1)

SENSOR:  A device that responds to physical stimuli (such as heat, light, sound, pressure, magnetism, motion) and transmits the resulting signal or data for providing a measurement, operating a control, or both.  (R15.06)

SENSORY CONTROL:  A control scheme whereby the robot motion or force is adjusted in accordance with outputs of external sensors.  (ISO 8373)

SEQUENCED ROBOT:  A robot having a control system in which a state of machine movements occurs axis by axis in a desired order, the completion of one movement initiating the next.  (ISO 8373)

SERVICE:  To adjust, repair, maintain and make fit for use. (R15.06)

SERVO CONTROL:  The process by which the control system of the robot checks if the attained pose corresponds to the pose specified by the motion planning with required performance and safety criteria. (ISO 8373)

SETTING TIME:  The elapsed time, after a move command is given, for a robot to reach and to remain within the manufacturer's rated band limit of point-to-point repeatability near a target position from the moment of the initial entry into the band limit. (R15.05-1)

SETUP: The process of adjusting the [machine], and the installation and adjustment of work holding devices or tooling and appropriate safeguarding to ensure proper and safe operation of the [machine]. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SETUP OPERATOR: An individual who is responsible to prepare the [machine] prior to production, and who controls the [machine] during production operations. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SHAFT WORK: Lathe operation performed on material that is supported at two or more places. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SHALL: Denotes a requirement that is to be strictly followed to conform to this standard; no deviation is permitted. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SHELL: With horizontal hydraulic extrusion presses, the outer billet skin remnant. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
SHIELD: (1) A barrier used to keep chips or coolant within the confines of the [machine].  (2) A barrier used to reduce the potential of tooling parts or workpieces from being ejected from the [machine]. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SHOULD: Denotes a recommendation, a practice or condition among several alternatives, or a preferred method or course of action. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SIGNAL-AND POWER-CARRYING CONDUCTOR ASSEMBLY:  An assembly of signal-and power-carrying conductors with two or more connections for a specific application.  (R15.01)

SINGLE CYCLE: A complete movement of the [machine] [slide] from the initial start position, to the return and stop at the same start position. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SINGLE-CYCLE CAPABILITY: A mechanism or control arrangement used to automatically initiate stopping action of the [machine] [slide] at the completion of a cycle. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SINGLE POINT OF CONTROL:  The ability to operate the robot such that initiation of robot motion from one source of control is only possible from that source and cannot be overridden from another source. (R15.06)

SINGLE STROKE:  One complete stroke of the slide, usually indicated from a full open (or up) position, followed by closing (or down) and then a return to the full open position.

SINGLE STROKE MECHANISM:  An arrangement used on a full revolution clutch to limit the travel of the slide to one complete stroke at each engagement of the clutch.

SINGLE STROKE MODE: An operating mode of a [machine] wherein a single cycle of the [machine] is produced by each operation of the actuating control. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SINGULARITY:  A manipulator configuration for which Cartesian motion with finite velocity in one or more directions is impossible.  (R15.07)

SIZE: To match the punch and die for proper clearance. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SIZING: With a P/M press, the repressing of the compacted part for the purpose of dimensional control. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SKILLED PERSONNEL: Personnel with technical knowledge or sufficient expertise to recognize potential hazards involved in the performance of their assigned task(s). (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SLEW (RATE): The maximum rate at which a system can follow a commanded motion.  (R15.07)

SLIDE:  The main reciprocating press member.  A slide is also called a ram, plunger, or platen.

SLIDE ADJUSTMENT: (1) The distance that shutheight can be reduced. (2) The mechanism for adjusting the shutheight. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SLIDE FACE:  The surface of the slide to which the punch or upper die is generally attached. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SLIDE LOCK: On a press, an integral mechanical device intended to prevent unintended slide movement. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SLITTER ARBOR: Steel shafts arranged to accept slitter tooling and to clamp the tooling in the setup position. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SLITTER TOOLING:  The rotary knives, spacers, stripper fingers, and stripper rings that are mounted on the arbor. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SLOW SPEED CONTROL:  A mode of robot motion control where the velocity of the robot is limited to allow persons sufficient time to either withdraw from hazardous motion or stop the robot.  (R15.06)

SPECIAL PURPOSE DIES: Press brake dies designed to perform work not normally done by general purpose dies, or for performing a common bending or forming operation in a manner that eliminates workpiece whip-up or the need for the operator to hand-hold the workpiece. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SPINDLE: A power driven shaft-like member mounted on bearings. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SPINDLE CARRIER: The component of the [machine] that supports the spindles(s). (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SPINDLE NOSE: That portion of the spindle on which is mounted either internal or external holding devices such as chucks. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SPINE ROBOT:  A robot whose arm is made up of two or more spherical joints.  (ISO 8373)

STABILIZATION:  The time period and number of cycles after which all attained poses of all programmed poses in a continuously cycling robot program remain within a desired position band (stability band).  (R15.05-1)

STANDARD CYCLE:  A sequence of movements by a robot during a typical task considered as reference, under specified conditions.  (ISO 8373)

STANDARD TEST PLANE:  An unbounded reference plan within the robot working space which is parallel to the (1,1,-1) plane and passes through the working center point, cw.  (R15.05-1)

STANDARD TEST PATH:  A series of reference positions defined with respect to the robot, along which performance parameters are measured.  (R15.05-1)

START (COLD):  The first automatic operation within 5 minutes of applying power after the system has been without power for a period of at least 4 hours.  (R15.05-1, R15.05-2)

START-UP SIGNAL: An audible or visual warning given prior to initiation of [machine] operation. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

START (WARM):  The initiation or resumption of automatic operation after the position repeatability has achieved stabilization.  (R15.05-1, R15.05-2)

START-UP:  Routine application of drive power to the robot/robot system. (R15.06)

START-UP, INITIAL:  Initial drive power application to the robot/robot system after one of the following events:  - manufacture or modification; - installation or reinstallation; - software/hardware changes; - maintenance or repair.  (R15.06)

STATIC COMPLIANCE:  The maximum amount o displacement per unit of load applied to the mechanical interface.  (ISO 8373)

STOCK REEL: On multiple spindle automatic bar machines, a screw/bar machines, a grouping of stock tubes. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

STOCK TUBE: A container and support for bars and other material. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

STOP: The cessation of [machine] motion, usually by disengaging the clutch, or other drive means, and engaging the brake. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

STOP CONTROL:  An operator control designed to immediately deactivate the clutch control and activate the brake to stop slide motion.

STOP-POINTCommand pose (taught or programmed) that the axes of the robot will attain with some deviation, the amount of which depends on the joining profile of the axes velocity to this pose and a specified criterion of passage (velocity, deviation in position).

STOP-RETURN CONTROL:  On a hydraulic power press, a control that stops and returns the slide to its initial position. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

STOPPING PERFORMANCE MONITOR: A system or device to monitor the performance of the brake. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

STRETCH BENDING: With a bending machine, the forming operation where the entire workpiece is stretched longitudinally and wrapped about a form. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

STRETCH FORMING: The process of shaping a sheet by stretching it over a form. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

STRIPPER:  A mechanism or die part for removing the parts or material from the punch.

STRIPPER EQUIPMENT: With a slitting machine, the attachment or equipment used to remove the material from between the rotary knives. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

STROKE: The movement of the slide from the open to the closed position. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

STROKE LENGTH: The distance that the slide travels from the open to the closed position. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

STROKING SELECTOR:  The part of the clutch/brake control that determines the type of stroking when the operating means is actuated. The stroking selector generally includes position for "Off" (Clutch Control), "Inch", "Single Stroke," and "Continuous" (when Continuous is furnished).

STRUCTURAL SHEARING STATION:  On an ironworker, the work station at which workpiece of structural sections or bars are sheared. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SUPERVISED:  Denotes a means or method whereby the user can exercise permissive control over the operation of the [machine]. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SUPERVISOR: An individual authorized to act on behalf of the employer and to direct the activities of other employees. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SUPERVISORY CONTROL: A device or method that ensures that the [machine] and its safeguarding are used and operated such that individuals are protected from hazards.

SUPPLIER: An individual, corporation, partnership or other legal entity or form of business. Note: For the purpose of this standard, a supplier provides, or makes available for use, all of part of the [machine] or production system. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

SWEEP DEVICE:  A single or double arm (rod) attached to the upper die or slide of the press and designed to move the operator's hands to a safe position as the dies close, if the operator's hands are inadvertently within the point of operation.


T-STAND : An operator station mounted on a free-standing pedestal, not attached to the [machine] but connection to the [machine] control by a flexible chord. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TABLE: The part of the [machine] on which the material or workpiece is positioned. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TAIL-OUT:  The act of passing the end of strip material through, between or across the [machine] or its components. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TAILSTOCK: On a shaft lathe, a device provided and used primarily to give additional support to larger work. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TARGET POSITION:  The achieved position of the test point which results after the robot has been commanded to obtain a specified pose.  The resulting position includes robot system effects such as backlash. (R15.05-1)

TASK PROGRAM:  The set of instructions for motion and auxiliary function that define the specific intended task for the robot system; this type of program is normally generated by the user. (ISO 8373).

TASK PROGRAMMING:  The act of providing the task program.  (ISO 8373)

TEACH:  The generation and storage of a series of positional data points effected by moving the robot arm through a path of intended motions. (R15-06)

TEACH MODE:  The control state that allows the generation and storage of positional data points effected by moving the robot arm through a path of intended motions.  (R15.06)

TEACH PROGRAMMING:  Programming performed by: - manually leading the robot end effector, or -manually leading a mechanical simulating device; or -using a teach pendant to move the robot through the desired actions.  (ISO 8373)

TEACHER:  A person who provides the robot with a specific set of instruction to perform a task. (R15.06)

TECHNICAL FILE:  Documentation as/if required by directives. File compiled by the manufacturer and placed at the disposal of the national authorities should they so request.  Note: the term Technical Construction File (TCF) is referred to in the EMC directive.

TELEOPERATED ROBOT:  A robot that can be remotely operated by a human operator.  Its function extends the human's sensory-motor functions to remote locations and the response of the machine to the actions of the operator is programmable.  (ISO 8373)

TESTING:  Measures one or more characteristics of a product.

TEST (LOAD):  A weight equivalent to a steel cube whose center of gravity is located at some radial and axial offset. (R15.05-1)

TEST (POINT):  The physical point on the end-effector where the robot position is measured. (R15.05-1)

THREADING: The act of passing the leading end of strip material through, between or across the [machine] or its components.

THROAT: An opening or recess in the frame [housing] to permit positioning of the material or workpiece. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

THROAT DEPTH: On a gap frame press, the distance between the slide centerline and the frame. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TOOL: A punch, die, knife, cutting tool, blade or abrasive wheel used in the manufacture of production parts. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TOOL CENTER POINT (TCP):  The origin of the tool coordinate system (TCS). (R15.06, R15.07)

TOOL COORDINATE SYSTEM (TCS):  A coordinate system referenced to the mechanical interface coordinate system whose origin is defined by the manufacturer and whose offset and orientation are defined by the user.  (R15.07)

TOOL SET: The complement of upper punches, lower punches or other tooling components necessary to form the part. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TOOL SLIDE: On a lathe, the part of the [machine] that carries and moves in a forward and reverse motion to the workpiece. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TOP STOP: An operator control used to stop continuous cycling at the end of the cycle or at another predetermined point. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TRACER: The attachment fitted to a [machine] to enable a pattern and a stylus to control the contouring movements of the tool. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

:  A path in time.  (ISO 8373)

TRAJECTORY OPERATED ROBOT:  A robot, which performs a controlled procedure whereby three or more controlled axis motions operate in accordance with instruction that specify the required time-based trajectory to the next required pose (normally achieved through interpolation).  The velocity is usually varied for all axis motions so that the desired trajectory is generated.  (ISO 8373)

TRANSMISSION: The mechanical drive components, usually including speed changing means, by which power is transmitted from the source (driving members) to the output (driven members). (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TRANSILLUMINATION:  Light passed through, rather than reflected off, an element to be viewed, e.g., illumination used on control panels or indicators utilizing edge or back lighting techniques on clear, translucent, fluorescent, or sandwich-type materials. (R15.02)

TRANSITION PERIOD:  The time which elapses between the date on which a directive enters into force and a subsequent date until when national requirements exist alongside the manufacturer or representative has the choice of:  1)  Product complies to new directives (CE Marking) or 2) Product conforms to national rules (no CE Marking).  This period allows manufacturers time to adjust to new rules and sell their stocks of products manufactured in line with national rules.

TRAPPING SPACE:  The location where it is possible to trap body parts between the tooling or its mounting and the workpiece or work-holding equipment. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TRANSMISSION: The mechanical drive components, usually including speed changing means, by which power is transmitted from the source (driving members) to the output (driven members).

TRAVERSE:  The lateral movement of equipment or material. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TRAVERSE ROD: On a lathe, a shaft, rod or screw provided to transmit power from the traverse motor to the tool-carrying slides(s) during a time when cutting is not being performed. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

:  The average linear speed achieved by the robot during the large motions associated with the return path or the cycle time test. (R15.05-1)

TREADLE BAR: On a power press brake, the operating bar that extends the full length of the [machine] and to which a foot pedal [treadle] may be attached.

TRIP: The momentary actuation of the [machine] control or mechanism to initiate a [machine] cycle. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TRIP CONTROL:  A mechanism for actuating a power press. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TRIP OR TRIPPING:  Activation of the clutch to "run" the press.

TURNOVER BAR:  A bar used in die setting to manually turn the crankshaft of the press.

TURRET: A multiple position tool or workpiece holder. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TWO-HAND CONTROL: An actuating control that requires the concurrent use of both of the operator's hands to initiate or continue the [machine] cycle or stroke. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TWO HAND CONTROL DEVICE:  A two hand trip that further requires concurrent pressure from both hands of the operator during a substantial part of the die-closing portion of the stroke of the press.

TWO-HAND TRIP:  A clutch actuating means requiring the concurrent use of both hands of the operator to trip the press.

TWO-HAND TRIP DEVICE: A two-hand trip used as a safeguarding device. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

TYPE EXAMINATION:  A procedure carried out by an approved EC notified body to ascertain and certify that a product satisfies the relevant regulations/standards (see certification and regulated products).


UNINTENDED ACTUATION : An inadvertent cycle of the [machine], not initiated by an intentional or unintentional act of an individual. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

UNITIZED TOOLING:  A type of die in which the upper and lower members are incorporated into a self-contained unit so arranged as to hold the die members in alignment.

UNSTABLE COIL: A coil that requires support for stability when transporting. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

UPSETTING: The compressive deformation of metal, by a force in the direction of the axis of the stock, to enlarge the cross sectional area over a portion of the part. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

USER:  A company, a business, a person who uses robots, who contacts, hires or is responsible for the personnel associated with the robot operation. (R15.06)

USER COORDINATE SYSTEM:  A coordinate system referenced to the default coordinate system whose origin and orientation are user defined. (R15.07)


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