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Safety Glossary

D - F


DC:  Direct current.   

DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY:  Drawn up by responsible person that declares product complies with relevant 'essential requirements' (standards…) or underwent type-examination.  Entitles responsible person to affix CE Marking.

DEDICATED MANUFACTURING SYSTEM/CELL:  A system that can produce a well-defined family of parts with a predetermined sequence of operations and has limited capability to be reprogrammed for new parts or routes. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

DEFAULT COORDINATE SYSTEM:  A coordinate system defined by the robot manufacturer which defines the origin and orientation of the robot. (R15.07)

DEGENERACY:  A pose of the tool coordinate system which may be reached by a theoretically infinite set of manipulator configurations.  (R15.07)

DEGREE OF FREEDOM (DOF): One of the variables (maximum number of six) required to define the motion of a body in space. (ISO 8373)

DEGREES OF FREEDOM:  The number of independent joints of the robot.  (R15.07)

DEPENDENT JOINT:  A joint whose displacement value is dependent on one or more independent joints.  (R15.07)

DESIGN:  To develop and plan the (machine) to meet the intended purpose and function. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

DEVICE:  Any piece of control hardware, such as an emergency-stop button, a selector switch, a control pendant, a relay, a solenoid valve, or a sensor. (R15.06)

DEVICE:  A press control or attachment that:
Restrains the operator from inadvertently reaching into the point of operation, or
Prevents normal press operation if the operator's hands are inadvertently within the point of operation, or
Automatically withdraws the operator's hands are inadvertently within the point or operation as the dies close, or
Presents the initiation of a stroke, or stops of stroke in progress, when there is an intrusion through the sensing field b any part of the operator's body or by any other object.

DIE:  The tooling used in a press for cutting or forming material.  An upper and a lower die make a complete set.

DIE BLOCK: With a cold header, a bored block placed in the cavity of the header bed for the purpose of holding the individual dies. (B-11 Definitions Manual)  See also Safety Block.

DIE BUILDER:  Any person who builds dies for power presses.

DIE CUSHION:  A press accessory that provides the counterforce required in some operations to aid in the forming or release of the workpiece. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

DIE HOLDER:  With a press brake, he plate or rail to which the lower portion of the die member is attached. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

DIE ENCLOSURE GUARD: An enclosure attached to the die shoe or stripper, or both, in a fixed position.
DIE SET:  A tool holder held in alignment by guide posts and bushings and consisting of a lower shoe, an upper shoe or punch holder, and guide posts and bushings.
DIE SETTER:  An individual who places or removes dies in or from mechanical power presses, and who as a part of his duties, makes the necessary adjustments to cause the tooling to function properly and safety.

DIE SETTING:  The process of placing or removing dies in or from a mechanical power press, and the process of adjusting the dies, other tooling and safeguarding means to cause them to function properly and safely.

DIE SHOE:  A plate or block upon which a die holder is mounted.  A die shoe functions primarily as a base for the complete die assembly, and, when used, is bolted or clamped to the bolster plate or the face of slide.

DIE SPACE:  (1) On a press, the volume encompassed by the slide area projected to the bed or bolster, wherein the dies are mounted. (2) On a press brake, the area encompassed by the slide length projected to the bed. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

DIE STEM ASSEMBLY:  With a horizontal hydraulic extrusion press, the complement of components through which the extruded shapes pass in the indirect-extrusion process.  The assembly includes the extrusion die backup tooling and the hollow stem. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

DIE TRYOUT:  The process of functionally testing and performing modifications to the die assembly. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

DIRECT DRIVE:  The type of driving arrangement wherein no clutch is used; coupling and decoupling of the driving torque is accomplished by energization and deenergization of a motor. Even though not employing a clutch, direct drives match the operational characteristics of "part revolution clutches" because the driving power may be disengaged during the stroke of the press.

DIRECT EXTRUSION PROCESS:  With a horizontal hydraulic extrusion press, the method of producing extruded shapes in which the pressurized billet is pushed through the contained by the extrusion stem, forcing the metal through the stationary extrusion die. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

DIS:  Draft International Standard.

DISCRETE PARTS OR ASSEMBLIES:  Separate or distinct units or elements that are considered as the output or work in process of an industrial machine or manufacturing system/cell. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

DISTANCE ACCURACY:  Difference between a command distance and the mean of the attained distances. (ISO 8373)

DISTANCE REPEATABILITY:  Closeness of agreement among the attained distances for the same command distance repeated in the same direction. (ISO 8373)

DISTRIBUTED JOINT:  An assembly between two links which enables one to translate and/or rotate relative to the other about an axis linked to the translation. (ISO 8373)

DRAW BENDING:  With a bending machine, the operation in which the material is clamped or restrained against a bending form that rotates, drawing the material through a pressure die, and if needed, over a mandrel. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

DRESSING:  The process by which the shape or surface condition of the abrasive wheel are altered by a dressing tool. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

DRIFT OF (UNIDIRECTIONAL) POSE ACCURACY:  Variation of (unidirectional) pose accuracy over a specified time.  (ISO 8373)

DRIVE:  The source of mechanical force and energy to impart (machine) motion. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

DRIVE PIN:  A dowel, secured to the fixed or inner flange, of sufficient length to extend through a corresponding clearance hole in the circular saw blade and into the outer flange. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

DRIVE POWER:  The energy source or sources for the robot actuators. (R15.06)

DRIVE STARTING CONTROL: The control mechanism that, when actuated by the operator, places the (machine) in motion in a mode pre-selected by the operator. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

DUMMY BLOCK (fixed or loose):  In a horizontal hydraulic extrusion press, a device to seal the billet in the contained during extrusion. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

DUTY CYCLE:  A percentage of time a robot can continuously operate with the rated payload at rated conditions (for example speed, acceleration and temperature) without overheating or degradation of the robot. This is a manufacturer recommendation. (R15.05-2)

DYNAMIC:  A state in which an entity changes with time. (R15.05-1, R15.06-2, R15.07)


EC: European Community.

ECCENTRIC:  The offset position of the main shaft r main gear that imparts reciprocating slide motion.

EC DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY:  EC Certificate of Conformity (by Notified Body).

EEA: European Economic Area.

EEC: European Economic Community.

EFTA:  European Free Trade Association.

EJECTOR:  A mechanism for removing work or material from between the dies.

ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAY:  Conventional switching relays consisting of "hard" contacts (metal-to-metal), switches to open or closed position by applying voltage to an electromagnetic coil.

EMC:  Electromagnetic Compatibility.

EMERGENCY STOP:  Robots and associated machinery must be equipped with an emergency stop circuit that uses hardware based components.  The emergency stop circuit, when activated, shall override all other controls and cause all motion to stop. A sufficient number of emergency stop devices must be provided both inside and outside the safeguarded space. The number and location is determined by the size and configuration of the robot cell or machine, however the objective is to insure that an unobstructed readily accessible emergency stop is available at all times for all personnel.

EMERGENCY STOP:  The operation of a circuit using hardware-based components that overrides all other robot controls, removes drive power from the robot actuators, and causes all moving parts to stop. (R15.06)

EMERGENCY STOP CONTROL:  An operator control, usually a push-button with a large, red, protruding mushroom head, that when actuated, initiates an emergency stop. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

EMI: Electromagnetic Interference: Electrical noise which may interfere with proper operation of sensors, programmable logic controllers, counters, data recorders, and other sensitive electronic equipment.  Common sources of EMI include lighting fixtures and controls, motors, generators, etc.

EN:    European Norm.

ENABLING DEVICE:  A manually operated device which when continuously activated, permits motion. Releasing the device shall stop robot motion and motion of associated equipment that may present a hazard. (R15.06)

END EFFECTOR COUPLING DEVICE:  A flange at the end of the articulated structure and locking devices or additional parts securing the end effector to the end of the articulated structure.  (ISO 8373)

END-EFFECTOR:  An accessory device or tool specifically designed for attachment to the robot wrist or tool mounting plate to enable the robot to perform its intended task.  (Examples may include gripper, spot weld gun, spray point gun, or any other application tools.) (R15.06)

END OF TRANSITION PERIOD:  At the end of the transition period the member states are obligated to terminate national regulations and apply the directives to all products.  Products manufactured in line with the national regulations may no longer be placed on the market.  Only products rightfully bearing the CE Marking can be placed on the market or put into service.

ENERGY SOURCE:  Any electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, potential, kinetic or other source.  (R15.06)

ENSURE:  To establish, maintain and monitor an effective program, procedure or system to implement the requirements of this standard. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

ENVELOPE (SPACE), MAXIMUM:  The volume of space encompassing the maximum designed movements of all robot parts including the end-effector, workpiece and attachments. (R15.06)

EVALUATION OF CONFORMITY:  A systematic exam of the extent to which a product/service fulfills specified requirements. Mandatory evaluation of conformity of requirements which must be undertaken before a product process or services is placed on the market.

ENVELOPE (SPACE), RESTICTED:  That portion of the maximum envelope to which a robot is restricted by limiting devices.  The maximum distance that the robot can travel after the limiting device is actuated defines the boundaries of the restricted envelope (space) of the robot. (R15.06)

ENVELOPE (SPACE), OPERATING:  That portion of the restricted envelope (space) that is actually used by the robot while performing it programmed motions.  (R15.06)
EOTC:  European Organization for Testing & Certification.

ERGONOMICS:  The evaluation, design or redesign of facilities, environments, jobs, job tasks, training methods and equipment to match the capabilaities of people. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

E-STOP:  Emergency Stop Button.

EU:  European Union (replaces EC).

EXTERNAL CONTROL:  With a manufacturing system/cell, a control mode where the manufacturing system/cell or its machines and related equipment are operated from a location usually external from the system and usually automatically and unattended. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

EXTRUDING:  The process of producing a desired cross section by forcing metal or other material through a shaped opening. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

EXTRUSION DIE:  With a horizontal hydraulic extrusion press, a tool having in it a configured opening(s) through which the billet is forced to create an extruded shape. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

EXTRUSION STEM:  With a horizontal hydraulic extrusion press, the complement of components, including die backup tooling and the hollow stem, through which the extruded shapes pass in the indirect-extrusion process. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

EYELET MACHINE:  An automatic multiple station transfer feed machine for making drawn stampings by use of cam-driven adjustable plungers, acting from above and below the workpiece, and to which individual tool elements are attached. (B-11 Definitions Manual)


FACE OF SLIDE:  The bottom surface of the slide to which the punch or upper die is generally attached.

FAIL-SAFE DESIGN:  A design in which a failure will not adversely affect the safe operation of the system. (R15.02)

FEEDING:  The process of placing or removing material within or from the point of operation.

FEED ROD:  With a lathe, a shaft or rod used to transmit power from the source to the tooling-carrying slide(s) during the cutting operation. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

FEED SHOE:  On a P/M press, the container or components for transferring the powder from the supply hopper to the die cavity, or for removing the part from the point of operation. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

FEEDING:  The process of placing the material or workpieces(s) into the [machine], or removing the material or workpieces(s) from the [machine]. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

FIGURE OF MERIT (FOM): Values, determined through testing, which quantify a particular performance parameter. For example, the maximum and the average are two figures of merit which quantify the relative path accuracy.  (R15.05-1, R15.05-2)

FILLER PLATE:  On a vertical contour sawing machine, a part recessed in the work support surface. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

FIXED BARRIER GUARD: A guard affixed to the frame, bolster or other surface in such a manner as to enclose all or part of the point of operation or other hazard area. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

FIXED SEQUENCE MANIPULATOR:  A manipulator which performs each step of a given operation according to a predetermined motion pattern which cannot be changed without physical alteration. (ISO 8373)

FIXTURE:  A means used to locate or support the material, workpieces(s) or tool(s) during operation. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

FLANGES:  Collars, discs or plates between which wheels or circular saw blades are mounted. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

FLAT SHEARING STATION:  On an ironworker, the work station at which workpieces of rectangular cross section are sheared. 

FLEXIBLE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM/CELL:  A system that can be programmed to produce a variety of parts in random order, and can be reprogrammed to handle new parts and new sequences. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

FLY-BY POINTCommand pose (taught or programmed) that the axes of the robot will attain with some deviation, the amount of which depends on the joining profile of the axes velocity to this pose and a specified criterion of passage (velocity, deviation in position). (ISO 8373)

FOOT CONTROL:  The foot operated control mechanism designed to be used with a clutch or clutch/brake control system.

FOOT PEDAL:  The foot operated level designed to operate the mechanical linkage that trips a full revolution press.

FULL REVOLUTION CLUTCH:  A type of clutch that, when engaged, cannot be disengaged until the [machine] has completed a cycle. (B-11 Definitions Manual)


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