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Safety Glossary



MACHINE OPERATOR:  An individual who performs production work and who controls operation of the machine.  

MAINTAINABILITY, DESIGN FOR :  Design considerations directed toward achieving those combined characteristics of equipment and facilities that will enable the accomplishment of necessary maintenance quickly, safely, accurately, and effectively, with minimized requirements for personnel, skills, special tools, and cost. (R15.02)

MAINTENANCE:  The act of keeping the robots and robot systems in their proper operating condition.  (R15.06)

MAKING AVAILABLE The transfer of ownership of the physical delivery of the product by the manufacturer or authorized representative in the community or the importer to the person responsible for distributing the product to the final consumer or user, for payment or free of charge.

MANDATORY CERTIFICATION:  Type-examination, which as a requirement of a regulation or directive has to be applied before a product, process or service can be placed on the market.  A Notified Body must perform function specified in the directive before CE Marking is applied.

MANDREL: Tooling or a machine component used to provide internal support. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

MANIPULATION:  Intentional defeating or overriding of safety devices. If accidents result, legal proceedings usually follow.

MANIPULATOR:  A machine, the mechanism of which usually consists of a series of segments jointed or sliding relative to one another, for the purpose of grasping and/or moving objects (pieces or tools) usually in several degrees of freedom.  It may be controlled by an operator, a programmable electronic controller, or any logic system (for example cam device, wired, etc.)  (ISO 8373)

MANUAL DATA INPUT PROGRAMMING:  Program generation and entry directly into the robot control system by means of switches or plug-boards or keyboards.  (ISO 8373)

MANUAL DRIVE: Human effort used as the source of mechanical force and energy that imparts [machine] motion. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

MANUAL FEEDING:  Feeding wherein the material or part being processed is handled by the operator on each stroke of the press.

MANUAL MODE:  The operating mode in which the robot can be operated by, for example, push button or joystick and that excludes automatic operation. (ISO 8373)

MANUFACTURER:  Person responsible for designing and manufacturing a product covered by the directive(s), with a view to placing it on the community market.  The manufacturer is responsible for designing and manufacturing products in accordance with the directives and following the certification procedures (declaration, type-exam, CE Marking and preparation of files).

MASTER OPERATOR STATION: The control station that includes the full complement of controls required for the setup and operation of the [machine]. (B-11 Definitions Manual) 

MATERIAL POSITION GAGE : A stop against which the material or workpieces(s) is placed to locate it within the point of operation. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

MAY: Denotes a permissible course of actions within the limits of the standard. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

): The moment (torque) that can be continuously applied to the mechanical interface excluding any inertial effects assuring no permanent damage to the robot mechanism.  (ISO 8373)

MAXIMUM THRUST:  The thrust that can be continuously applied to the mechanical interface (excluding any inertial effect), assuring no permanent damage to the robot mechanism.  (ISO 8373)

MEASUREMENT DWELL:  A delay at the measurement point prior to recording data. (R15.05-1)

MECHANICAL INTERFACE:  The mounting surface at the end of the articulated structure to which the end effector is attached.  (ISO 8373)

MECHANICAL INTERFACE:  The mechanical structure of the junction between the end of the articulated structure and the end effector.  (ISO 8373)

MECHANICAL INTERFACE COORDINATE SYSTEM:  A coordinate system attached to the mechanical interface of the robot, whose origin is located on the surface of the mechanical interface and whose orientation is determined by the manufacturer.  (R15.07)

MECHANISM: An arrangement of components to accomplish a given function. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

MINIMUM POSITIONING TIME:  The time elapsed between departure from and arrival at the mechanical interface stationary state when traversing a predetermined distance (including stabilization time).  (ISO 8373)

MOBILE ROBOT:  A robot which carriers all of the means needed for its monitoring and movement (power, control, driving). (ISO 8373)

MODE: The specific manner of operation of a [machine] or production system as determined by the state or condition of the control system. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

MODE SELECTOR: A control device used to establish the [machine] mode. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

MODIFICATION:  (1) The making of a change to the [machine] or production system that alters its original purpose, function, capacity, operation or safeguarding requirements.
(2) A change to the [machine] or production system that alters its original purpose, function, capacity, operation or safeguarding requirements.

Note: For the purposes of this standard, modification includes any effects that the change(s) has on other portions of the [machine] or production system, including safeguarding, not directly a part of the modification. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

MODIFIER:  Any supplier that changes the original purpose, function or capacity of the [machine] or production system by design or construction. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

MOTION PLANNING:  The process by which the robot control program determines how to move the joints of the mechanical structure between the poses programmed by the user, according to the type of interpolation chosen. (ISO 8373)

MOTION PROFILES:  Time varying value of the displacement, velocity and/or acceleration of the Tool Center Point (TCP) or joints.  (R15.07)

MOVABLE BARRIER DEVICE: A safeguarding device arranged to enclose the point of operation before [machine] motion can be initiated.

Note: There are two types of movable barrier devices:
Type A, which encloses the point of operation during the complete [machine] cycle.
Type B, which encloses the point of operation during the hazardous portion of the [machine] cycle. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

MOVABLE COVER: With an ironworker, an attachment that shields the opening of the work station on the drop-off side of an ironworker. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

MULTIPLE BENDING: The forming of two or more bends in a single workpiece, or in two or more workpieces, with each cycle of the [machine]. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

MULTI-CONDUCTOR:  Two or more conductors, either cabled or laid in a flat parallel construction, with or without a common overall covering.  (R15.01)

MULTI-DIRECTIONAL POSE ACCURACY VARIATION:  The maximum distance between the mean attained poses achieved when visiting the same command pose multiple times from three perpendicular directions. (ISO 8373)

MUTING:  The deactivation of a presence-sensing safeguarding device by design during a portion of the robot cycle. (R15.06)

MUTUAL RECOGNITION:  A concept whereby national certificates are recognized by other bodies. This concept has been around for many years, but not made much headway.  Under the new CE Directives, mutual recognition is not needed for products.



NARROW COIL : A coil whose width is less than 12" and less than 25% of its diameter. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

NATIONAL AUTHORITY:  The various national authorities in the member states that are responsible for market control.

NEAR SOLUTION ALGORITHM:  The method by which the robot controller determines which configuration to use when moving in a kinematic fashion to a command pose. (R15.07)

NEC:  National Electric Code.  Issues a set of regulations governing construction and installation of electrical wiring and apparatus in the United States, established by the American National Board of Fire Underwriters.

NEMA:  National Electrical Manufacturers Association.  NEMA standards are used to specify suitability of sensor and sensing system enclosures for various sensing environments.

'NEW APPROACH' DIRECTIVES:  Written in general terms, these directives set out the essential requirements (for safety and EMC, for example).  Products meeting requirements shall carry the CE Marking. See 'standards' for specific requirements.

NFPA:  National Fire Protection Associations. Administrative sponsor of the National Electrical Code.

NOMINAL ROBOT MODEL:  The unique, theoretical model representing a robot built with zero tolerance. (R15.07)

NON-CRITICAL:  Any component which is not a part of the robot safety system or one which is not critical to the robot's operation. (R15.05-3)

NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS:  The range of environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, humidity) and other parameters which may influence robot performance (such as electrical supply instability, electromagnetic fields, etc.) within which the performance of the robot specified by the manufacturer is valid.  (ISO 8373)
NORMAL OPERATING STATE (AUTOMATIC OPERATION):  The robot state in which the robot is executing its task program as intended.

:  Laboratories, certification bodies and inspection bodies that are independent and notified to the European Commission for product/system testing, etc. Notified bodies are expected to conform to the EN 45 000 series and are authorized to perform the conformity assessment tasks specified in the directives. A notified body is responsible for issuing EC type-exam certificates refereed to in the directives.



OFF-LINE PROGRAMMABLE ROBOT :  A robot that can perform a task program entered through off-line programming and such that the knowledge of the kinematics of the robot is enough to carry out the required performances.   (ISO 8373)

OFF-LINE PROGRAMMING:  A programming method where the task program is defined on devices separate from the robot for later input of programming information to the robot.  (ISO 8373)

OFFSET - AXIAL:  The distance from the mechanical flange along the Zm axis of the mechanical interface coordinate system to the center of gravity of the test point.  (R15.05-1, R15.05-2)

OFFSET - RADIAL:  The perpendicular distance from the Zm axis of the mechanical interface coordinate system to the center of gravity of the test point.  (R15.05-1, R15.05-2)

OHM'S LAW:  E = 1 x R. Current (1) is directly proportional to voltage (E) and inversely proportional to total resistance (R) of a circuit.

:  A state of the robot control system.  (ISO 8373)

OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT:  All conditions (physical and operational) in the immediate vicinity of an industrial robot or robotic system that may positively or negatively impact the performance, reliability, or safety of its hardware, software, or personnel.  (R15.02)

OPERATOR:  The person designated to start, monitor and stop the intended productive operation of a robot or robot system.  An operator may also interface with a robot for productive purposes. (R15.06)

OPERATOR CONTROL: Any operator actuated push button, switch, lever, pedal, hand wheel or other device that initiates, cycles, controls or stops [machine] motion. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

OPERATOR MAINTAINED CONTINUOUS MODE: Continuous cycling, initiated by an operator, and maintained by the operator by means of the actuating control. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

OPERATOR'S STATION:  The complete complement of controls used by or available to an operator on a given operation for stroking the press.

ORGANIC BONDED WHEEL: An abrasive wheel that is bonded by means of organic material such as resin, rubber, shellac or other similar bonding agent. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

ORIENTATION:  The angular displacement of a coordinate system resulting from a sequence of three (3) rotations (A, B, C) about an identical, fixed reference frame.  The order of rotations: A = Rotate about X axis; B = Rotate about Y axis; C = Rotate about Z axis (R15.07)

OSHA:  Occupational Safety and Health Association is a U. S. Federal Agency, a division of the U. S. Department of Labor, and is responsible for the regulation of workplace safety.  OSHA regulations constitute Federal Law, and must be followed.

A condition in which the forces being applied to move a load are overtaken by the mass or inertia of the load.

:  Both contacts are simultaneously closed for a short duration.

OVERLOAD RELIEF DEVICE:  A mechanism designed to relieve overloads to structural press members, or the tooling, or both. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

OVERSHOOT:  The maximum distance a robot travels past the attained pose along the direction of motion after a move command. (R15.05-1)


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