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Safety Glossary

G - I


GATE OR MOVABLE BARRIER DEVICE :  A movable barrier arranged to enclose the point of operation before the press stroke can be started.

GENERAL PURPOSE DIES:  Press brake dies used to perform bending and forming operations on a variety of workpieces. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

GIBS:  The press components that guide the reciprocating motion of the slide to ensure required squareness and parallelism. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

GOAL DIRECTED PROGRAMMING:  Programming method in which the task to be carried out is defined but the path of the end effector is not prescribed.  (ISO 8373)

GREEN PART:  With a P/M press, a compacted parts that retains its shape by mechanical bond of the individual particles instead of by a the metallurgy of cast, wrought or sintered material. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

GRIND CYCLE:  The period of time, either continuous or intermittent, during which the grinding tool is removing material from the workpiece. (B-11 Definitions Manual) 

GRIPPER :  An end effector designed for seizing and holding. (ISO 8373)

GROUND:  (a) The Earth of some other large conducting but isolating body, e.g.  the frame of an aircraft in flight. (b)  The conducting system connecting an individual part to Earth.

GROUNDING:  Article 250-75 of the 1990 National Electric Code requires bonding of metallic parts metal raceways, cable trays, cable armor, cable sheath, enclosures, frames, fittings, and other metal non-current-carrying parts that serve as a grounding conductor even if a separate grounding conductor is used. The methods and equipment used must be able to maintain high integrity low impedance ground when used with a circuit using shunt Zener diode barriers as interface between the hazardous and non-hazardous area.

GROUND POTENTIAL:  The potential of the Earth.  A circuit, terminal, or chassis is said to be at ground potential when it is used as a reference point for other potentials in the system.

GUARD:  A barrier that prevents entry into the point of operation or other hazard area. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

GUIDE POST:  The pin attached to the upper or lower die shoe operating within the bushing on the opposing die shoe, to maintain the alignment of the upper and lower dies.



HAND CONTROL :  A hand operated mechanism used as an actuating control.
HAND FEEDING TOOL:  Any hand held tool designed for placing or removing material or parts to be processed within or from the point of operation.

HANDLING SLOT:  With a shear, the recess below the table surface that aids in the handling or positioning of the material or workpieces(s). (B-11 Definitions Manual)

HAZARD:  A situation that is likely to cause personal physical harm. (R15.06)

HAZARD:  A hazard is the potential for an activity, condition, circumstance or changing conditions to produce injury or illness.

HAZARDOUS AREA:  An area that poses an immediate or impending physical hazard. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

HAZARDOUS MOTION:  Any motion that is likely to cause personal physical harm.  (R15.06)

:  The closest point as measured from any location to the hazardous area.

:  Harmonization Document (similar to a European Standard).

HEADING:  An upsetting operation for enlarging the cross sectional area of the end of the stock. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

HEADSTOCK:  The horizontal lathe component that houses one or more spindles on which a chuck, table, or other work-holding device is mounted. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

HELPER:  An individual who assists another in the operation, maintenance or repair of the [machine]. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

HIGH ENERGY RATE PRESS:  A forging machine that imparts impact to the workpiece, by means of high slide velocities resulting from the sudden release of a compressed gas against a free piston. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

A mechanism that restrains movement of the workpiece during the shearing action. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

HOLD DOWN GUARD:  On a shear, a guard that prevents access to the pinch point hazard imposed by the hold-down(s) of the [machine]. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

HOLDING DISTANCE: With a shear, the amount of travel of the slide during which the operator(s) is compelled to hold the actuating control operated. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

HOLDING TIME:  The elapsed time during which the operator(s) is compelled to hold the actuating control operated to continued uninterrupted [machine] motion. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

:  A mechanism, including attachments for operator's hands, that when anchored and adjusted prevent the operator's hands from entering the point of operation.

HOME POSITION:  A unique reference configuration. (R15.07)

HOSTAGE CONTROL DEVICE:  Term used in ANSI Standards to describe any actuating control device or mechanism that prevents the operator from reaching the hazard point during normal cycling of the machine.  A two-hand control device is an example of a hostage control device.

HUMAN ENGINEERING:  The application of available knowledge that defines the nature and limits of human capabilities as they relate to checkout, operation, maintenance, or control of systems or equipment in engineering design.  (R15.02)

HUMAN FACTORS:  One of several terms used to describe ergonomics. (B-11 Definitions Manual)



IEC :  International Electrotechnical Commission, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. This organization writes and distributes recommended safety and performance standards for electrical products and components.

:  Abbreviation for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. 

:  The opposition in an electric circuit to the flow of alternating current (AC) at a given frequency.  Impedance consists of resistance, inductive reactance, and capacitive reactance.  It is measured in ohms.

:  Person who places on the Community market a product from a third country, which is covered by directives. The importer may be responsible under the terms of the directive if neither the manufacturer or his authorized representative is based in the community.

: An intermittent motion imparted to the slide (on machines using part revolution clutches) by momentary operation of the "Inch" operating means. Operation of the "Inch" operating means engages the driving clutch so that a small portion of one stroke or indefinite stroking can occur, depending upon the length of time the "Inch" operating means is held operated. "Inch" is a function used by the die setter for setup of dies and tooling, but is not intended for use during production operations by the operator.

INCH MODE:  An operating mode wherein incremental [machine] motion is imparted by manual means, by a single individual. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

INDEPENDENT JOINT:  A joint whose displacement value is determined by the displacement of one or more actuators.  (R15.07)

INDEX:  To move the tooling, material or workpiece to a predetermined position. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

INDIRECT-EXTRUSION PROCESS: With a horizontal hydraulic extrusion press, the method of producing extruded shapes in which the pressurized billet remains fixed within the contained and the metal is forced through the extrusion die and die stem assembly. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

INDIVIDUAL:  A particular human being. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

INDIVIDUAL JOINT (AXIS) ACCELERATIONAcceleration of specified point resulting from the movement of one individual joint (axis).  (ISO 8373)

INDIVIDUAL JOINT (AXIS) VELOCITY:  Velocity of specified point resulting from the movement of one individual joint (axis).  (ISO 8373)

INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT:  Physical apparatus used to perform industrial tasks, such as welders, conveyors, machine tools, fork trucks, turn tables, positioning tables, or robots.  (R15.06)

INDUSTRIAL MACHINE:  A power driven machine, not portable by hand working, used to shape, form, assemble, disassemble material by cutting, impact,, pressure, electrical, thermal or optical techniques, lamination or a combination of these processes; or associated machines or equipment used in conjunction with these industrial machines to transfer raw material, work in process or tolling (including fixtures), spray or coat, inspect or test or package. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

INDUSTRIAL ROBOT SYSTEM:  A system that includes industrial robots, the end-effectors, industrial equipment and the devices and sensors required for the robots to be taught or programmed, or for the robots to perform the intended automatic operations, as well as the communication interfaces required for interlocking, sequencing, or monitoring the robots.  (R15.06)

INDUSTRIAL ROBOT:  A reprogrammable multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices, through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. (R15.06)

INFANT MORTALITY:  The initial operating period during which a robot or a robot population exhibits a high failure rate which decreases rapidly until it stabilizes at time t1 as failed components are replaced.  (R15.05-3)

INORGANIC BONDED WHEEL:  An abrasive wheel that is bonded by means of inorganic material such as clay, glass, sodium silicate, magnesium oxychloride or metal. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

INPUT:  A signal (or power) which is applied to a piece of electrical apparatus or the terminals on the apparatus to which a signal or power is applied.

INPUT DEVICES:  Devices such as limit switches, pressure switches, push buttons, etc., that supply commands or data to a robot controller.  (R15.02)

INPUT VOLTAGE:  The power source required by an electric or electronic device (e.g. a self-contained sensor) in order for the device to operate properly.

INRUNNING NIP POINT: Any location where a part of the body could be drawn in and injured between a rotating machine member and another rotating or fixed member, or the material. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

INSPECTION AND COMPETENT BODIES:  Carry out inspection of product and issue reports and certificates to support product's compliance. Also, assess plants and equipment; some bodies assess manufacturer's quality systems.  Competent bodies are referred to in the EMC directive.

INSTALLATION:  The operation consisting of installing the robot on its site, connecting it to its supply and drive powers.  (ISO 8373)

INSTALLER:  An individual, partnership or corporation responsible for placement and preparation for use of a [machine]. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

INSTRUCTED PERSONNEL: Personnel who are instructed in the performance of a specific task(s). (B-11 Definitions Manual)

INTEGRATOR: Any supplier that designs, provides, manufactures or assembles a [machine], its associated machines or equipment, the safeguarding, control interfaces, interconnections or the control system into a [machine] production system. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

INTERLEAVING:  The condition wherein the spacing between the wire coils of a spring is greater than the diameter of the coil wire, so that one coil spring, or a portion thereof, cannot be threaded into another coil spring, or portion thereof. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

INTERLOCK:  An arrangement whereby the operation of one control or mechanism allows, or prevents the operation of another.  (R15.06)

INTERLOCKED BARRIER GUARD: A barrier, or section of a barrier, interlocked with the [machine] control system to prevent inadvertent access to the point of operation during normal [machine] operation. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

INTERLOCKED PRESS BARRIER GUARD:  A barrier attached to the press frame and interlocked so that the press stroke cannot be started normally unless the guard itself or its hinged or moveable sections, enclose the point of operation.

INTRINSICALLY SAFE CIRCUIT:  A circuit in which any spark or thermal effect is incapable of causing ignition of a mixture of flammable or combustible material in air under prescribed test conditions.
INTRINSICALLY SAFE SYSTEM:  An assembly of interconnected intrinsically safe apparatus, and interconnecting cables in which those parts of the system which may be used in hazardous (classified) locations are intrinsically safe circuits.

INTRINSIC SAFETY BARRIER:  A protective component designed to limit the voltage and current in a hazardous area.  The barrier functions outside of the hazardous location to divert abnormal energy to ground.

:  A rating system established by IEC Publication 133 and 529 which defines the suitability of sensor and sensor system enclosures for various environments. Similar to NEMA ratings for enclosures.

  International Organization for Standardization.


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