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Safety Glossary

A - C


ABRASIVE BRAND:  An endless flexible band impregnated with abrasive material. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

: A grinding tool consisting of abrasive grains held together by organic or inorganic bonds. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

AC: Alternating Current

ACCESSIBLE (AS APPLIED TO EQUIPMENT): Admitting close approach: not guarded by locked doors, elevation, or other effective means. (NFPA 70 National Electrical Code)

ACCESSIBLE, READILY (READILY ACCESSIBLE): Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal, or inspections, without requiring those to whom ready access requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable ladders, chairs, etc. (See "Accessible") (NFPA 70, National Electrical Code)

: Independent authorized accreditation bodies (DAR, NAMAS…) recognize test labs and inspection bodies.

ACCUMULATOR: A vessel containing fluid under pressure used as a source of stored energy. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

: A measure of the deviation between the command characteristic an the attained characteristic. (R15.05-2)

ACTIVE SEAM: Used is multiple safety mat systems to connect individual mats together without creating a dead/non-active zone.

AUTUATING CONTROL: An operator control used to initiate (machine) (slide) motion. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

ACTUATOR: A power mechanism used to effect motion of the robot (for example, a motor which converts electrical, hydraulic, or pneumatic energy to effect motion of the robot). (R15.07)

ACTUATOR: The part of the actuating system to which an external actuating force is applied.

ADAPTIVE CONTROL: A control scheme whereby the control system parameters are adjusted from conditions detected during the process. (ISO 8373)

ADAPTIVE ROBOT: A robot having sensory control, adaptive control, or learning control functions. (ISO 8373)

ADDITIONAL LOAD: A load that can be carried by a robot, in addition to the rated load, and not applied at the mechanical interface but somewhere else on the articulated structure (generally, on the arm). (ISO 8373)

ADJUSTABLE BARRIER GUARD: A guard with provisions for adjustment t accommodate various job or tooling setups. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

ADJUSTABLE RESTRICTOR: With an ironworker, an attachment that restricts entry entry of the hands into the point of operation. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

ADJUSTABLE SPEED DRIVES: An electrical device or group of electrical devices that alters the drive motor output speed over a range in a controlled manner. This includes ac and dc voltage modes and frequency mode controls. Belt, chain, or roller shifting controllers are not included.

ALGORITHM: A prescribed set of well defined rules or processes or mathematical equations for the solution of a problem in a finite series of steps. (R15.07)

ALIGNMENT POSE: A specified pose used to establish a geometric reference for the robot. (ISO 8373)

ALPHANUMERIC: Pertaining to a character set that contains both letters and digits, but usually some other characters such as punctuation marks. (ANSI/IEEE Standard No. I00-88.)

ALTERNATING CURRENT: A sinusoidal current rated at a given frequency, usually 60 Hz or 60 Hz.

AMBIENT TEMPERATURE: The temperature of air or other medium where the equipment is to be used. (IEV 826-01-04.)

AMP: Abbreviation for ampere, the unit of electric current flowing through one ohm of resistance at one volt potential.

AMPACITY: The current in amperes a conductor can carry continuously under the conditions of use without exceeding its temperature rating. (NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.)

AMT: Association for Manufacturing Technology.

ANSI: American National Standards Institute

ANTHROPOMORPHIC [ARTICULATED] ROBOT: A robot whose arm has three rotary joints. (ISO 8373)

ANTIREPEAT: The function of the control system that limits the (machine) to a single cycle with the actuating controls(s) held operated. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

ANTI-TIE-DOWN: With a two-hand control device, the function of the control system requires the release of all actuators before (machine) operation can be reinitiated. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

APPARATUS: A set of materials or equipment designed for a particular use. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

APPLICATION PROGRAM: The set of instructions that define the specific intended tasks of robots and robot systems. This program may be originated and modified by the robot user. (R15.06)

ARBOR: A shaft, mandrel, spindle or axle. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

ARM [PRIMARY AXES]: An interconnected set of links and powered joints comprising links of longitudinal shape which positions the wrist. (ISO 8373)

ARTICULATED STRUCTURE: Set of links and joints which constitutes the arm and the wrist. (ISO 8373)

: A device that, by insertion in a receptacle, establishes connection between the conductors of the attached flexible cord and the conductors connected permanently to the receptacle, (NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.)

: The pose achieved by the robot in response to the command pose. (ISO 8373)

ATTENDED PROGRAM VERIFICATION: The time when a person within the restricted envelope (space) verifies the robot's programmed tasks at programmed speed. (R15.06)

: One to whom the authority and responsibility to perform a specific assignment has been given by the employer.

AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVE: Person appointed by the manufacturer to act on his behalf in carrying out certain tasks required by the directive, which the manufacturer has delegated to him. At this time, the authorized representative should be established in the European community to be able to act on the manufacturer's behalf.

AUTOMATIC END-EFFECTOR EXCHANGER: A coupling device between the mechanical interface of the robot and the end effector enabling automatic exchange of the end effectors. (ISO 8373)

AUTOMATIC FEEDING: The process whereby means other than manual are used to place the material or workpiece(s) into the (machine) and to remove the material or workpieces (s) from the machine. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

AUTOMATIC MODE: The operating mode in which the robot control system operates in accordance with the task program. (ISO 8373)

AUTOMATIC RESET: Operating mode that allows a process to restart after it has been brought to a stop by a safety guarding device such as a safety mat, safety gate, light curtain, etc. The process can continue to run in automatic mode once the device has reached a safe condition. Do not require human intervention to restart such as pushing a reset button.

AUTOMATIC SINGLE CYCLE: Continuous cycling, initiated by an operator, and maintained by actuating signals from an automatic feeding mechanism, or other auxiliary equipment, without further operator interaction. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

AUXILIARY DEVICE: A device that by itself does not safeguard a hazard but is required to ensure proper operation of guards or safeguarding devices. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

AUXILIARY JOINT: A joint which is not in the kinematic chain of the robot, but is controlled by the same controller that affects the robot. (R15.07)

AUXILIARY OUTPUT: A non-safety output on a safety relay module, usually a N/C contact. This output is normally used for signaling devices such as a tower light, or to inform a PLC that an activity has taken place.

AUXILIARY STATION: An additional control operator station from which some of the operations of the (machine) can be controlled.

AVAILABILITY: The percentage of time an item is in a mission-committable status, expressed as inherent, achieved, or operational availability. (R15.02)

AWARENESS BARRIER: Physical and visual means that warns a person of an approaching or present hazard. (R15.06)

AWARENESS DEVICE: A device or signal that, by means of audible sound or visable light, warns of a present of approaching hazard. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

AWARENESS SIGNAL: A device that by means of audible sound or visible light warns a person of an approaching or present hazard. (R15.06)

AWG: American Wire Gauge.

AXIS: A direction used to specify the robot motion in a linear or rotary mode. (ISO 8373)

AXIS ACCELERATION: The maximum acceleration that a particular axis can attain, when the robot is loaded with the "rated" payload. (R15.05-2)

AXIS SPEED: The maximum speed that a particular axis can attain, when the robot is loaded with the "rated" payload. (R15.05-2)

AXIS VELOCITY: The maximum speed that a particular axis can attain, when the robot is loaded with the "rated" payload. (R15.05-1)


  An endless flexible metal band with short segments of metal-cutting files attached in such a way that, when driven, will remove metal from a workpiece with a filing action. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BAND SAW BLADE: An endless, flexible metal band used as a cutting tool. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BANDING: The material used to restrain a coil from uncontrolled unwinding. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

: A physical means of separating persons from the restricted envelope (space). (R15.06)

: Have two primary purposes; (a) to limit or prevent access to hazardous locations and (b) to contain tooling, parts, chips, air contaminants, noise and other hazardous materials and energy.

BAR WORK: Lathe operations performed on material that is introducedd to the lathe through a hole in the spindle. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BARRIER: A physical boundry to a hazard. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BARRIER GATE DEVICE: With a P/M press, a safeguarding device that is designed to allow compacted parts to pass through it to the point of operation but restricts entry of the operator into the point of operation. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BASE: A platform or structure to which the origin of the first link of the articulated structure is attached. (ISO 8373) The basic and primary structure of the (machine). (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BASE COORDINATE SYSTEM: A coordinate system located at the mounting surface of the robot referenced to the world coordinate system. The origin and orientation are defined by the manufacturer. (R15.07)

BASE COORDINATE SYSTEM: A coordinate system referenced to the base mounting surface. (ISO 8373)

BASE MOUNTING SURFACE: The connection surface between the robot and its supporting structure. (ISO 8373)

BED: The stationary member of the (machine) that supports the (tooling) and other associated equipment. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BEND SHOE(S): With an upright compression bender, the tooling is attached to the wing dies whose function it is to retain the material, by compression with the punch, during the bending operation. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BENDING: The application of stress concentrated at specific points to permanently turn, press or force material from a straight, level or flat condition to a curved or angular configuration. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BENDING FORM DIE: With a rotary bending machine, the tooling that determines the shape, contour or configuration of the material being bent. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BENDING PUNCH: With a bending machine, the tooling attached to the slide to establish a specific material contour. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BG: BG-PRUFZERT - German certification agency which is a "Notified Body" and which can be used in obtaining "CE Marking" certification.

BG: BIA - German Institute for Work Safety of the Professional Trade Association.

BILLET: With a horizontal hydraulic extrusion press, he form from which extruded shapes are produced. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BLANKING: (1) The process of producing a flat stamping from coil, strip or sheet stock. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BLANKING: (2)  The means of by-passing a portion of the sensing field of a presence sensing safeguarding device. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BOLSTER: The plate attached to the press bed, which may have T-slots, tapped holes or other means for attaching the components. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BOLSTER PLATE: The plate attached to the top of the bed of the press having drilled hole or T-slots for attaching the lower die or die shoe.

BONDED WHEEL: See inorganic bonded wheel, organic bonded wheel, vitrified bonded wheel. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BONDING: The permanent joining of metallic parts to form an electrically conductive path that will assure electrical continuity and the capacity to conduct safely any current likely to be imposed. (NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.)

: A virtual volume whose vertices relate to the minimum/maximum extents of some geometric entity. (R15.07)

BRAKE: The mechanism used on a mechanical power press to stop and/or hold the crankshaft, either directly or through a gear train, when the clutch is disengaged.

: A sensor designed, constructed, and arranged to monitor the effectiveness of the press braking system.

BRANCH CIRCUIT: The circuit conductors between the final overcurrent device protecting the circuit and the outlet(s). (NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.)

: British Standards Institute.

BULLDOZER: A slow-acting horizontal mechanical power press used for bending and straightening. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BUMPER SWITCH: Form of safety edging used to detect the presence of a person or object.

BUSHING: An insert used to reduce a hole size. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

BUTT: With a horizontal hydraulic extrusion press, the remnant of a billet. (B-11 Definitions Manual)


CALIBRATION : To determine the deviation from a standard so as to ascertain the proper corrections. (R15.07)

CAM: A profiled element that imparts controlled motion. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CAMSHAFT: A shaft on which is mounted one or more cams. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CAN: Denoted a possibility, ability or capability, whether physical or casual. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CAPTIVE CONTACTS: Captive contacts, force-guided contacts or positive guided contacts are all names for devices which are designed such that no N/O contact can close before any N/C contact can open. This insures that the N/C contact stays open after a N/O contact welds. This is achieved by means of a mechanical drive bar which mechanically keeps the contacts from moving independently.

: See CE Marking.

CE MARKING: Manufacturer's or importer's self-declaration mark. Products which conform with all the relevant directives can bear the CE Marking (CE = European Community). Allows products to be sold anywhere in the EC. CE Marking will be mandatory for most products in the EU.

: European Committee of Standardization.

CENELEC: European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization.

CENTER: A part that supports a work piece on itsaxis of rotation. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CERT: EC Certificate of Conformity (by Notified Body).

CERTIFICATE OF CONFORMITY: EC Certificate of Conformity (by Notified Body).

CERTIFICATION: Statement by an impartial EC authorized body that a product or service conforms to specified standards (and/or directives). Product certification is common in EC and allows the use of a distinctive mark showing users that the product complies with the applicable requirements (see also 'Mandatory' and 'Voluntary' certification).

In the case of design certification/validation, that the manufacturer has reviewed and tested the design and manufacture, and in the case of installation certification/validation and annual recertification/revalidation, that the employer has reviewed and tested the installation, and concludes in both cases that the requirements of 1910.217 (a) through (h) and Appendix A have been met. The certifications are made to the validation organization.

CHAMFER: (1) The process of beveling, pointing or rounding the end of various tooth forms. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CHAMFER: (2) The beveled edge produced by te machining action of a cutting or forming tool. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CHIPS: Scraps or pieces of material that result from the machining action of a cutting tool. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CHUCK: A clamp-lie device used for gripping a workpiece or tool. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CHUCK WORK: Lathe operations performed on material that is introduced to the lathe as an individual workpiece. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CIRCULAR SAW BLADE: A disc-shaped cutting tool. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CIRCUIT BREAKER: A device designed to open and close a circuit by non-automatic means and to open the circuit automatically on a predetermined overcurrent without injury to itself when properly applied within its rating. (NFPA 70,
National Electrical Code.)

CLAMP DIE:  With a rotary bending machine, the tooling that retains the material against the bending form die. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CLEANOUT BLOCK: With a horizontal hydraulic extrusion press, a device to remove the remnant of the billet material attached to the container wall. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CLUTCH: The coupling mechanism used on a mechanical power press to couple the flywheel to the crankshaft, either directly or through a gear train.

COIL SET: The longitudinal curvature present in material wen it is unwound from a coil. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

: The process of sizing, shaping, reshaping, compacting or controlling the dimensions of a workpiece by confining or restraining one or more surfaces.

COLD WORKING: The plastic deformation of metal without the addition of external heat. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

COLLET: A holder with a matching taper for gripping the outside diameter of a workpiece or tool. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

COMBINATION CLUTCH/BRAKE: An integral clutch and brake, with a common actuator, arranged so that upon clutch engagement the brake is disengaged, and upon clutch disengagement, the brake is engaged.

COMBINED STROKING CONTROL SYSTEMS: With a power press brake, two independent actuating controls on the same machine, only one of which is operable at a time. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

COMMAND POSE: The desired position and orientation of the Tool Coordinate System (TCS). (R15.07)

COMMAND (PROGRAMMED) POSE: The pose specified by the task program. (ISO 8373)

COMMANDED POSE: The desired position and orientation of the test load which is entered into the controller by teach programming. The pose of a robot with less than six Degrees Of Freedom (DOF) is defined by the same number of parameters as it has DOF. (R15.05-1)

COMMISSIONING: The process of setting up, checking of the robot system and the verification of the robot functions following installation. (ISO 8373)

COMPACTION: With a P/M press, the compressions or consolidation of metallic or non-metallic powder into a desired shape. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

COMPONENT: A constituent part. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

COMPLIANCE: The deflection of a robot measured at the center of gravity of the standard test load under incremental static forces applied at the same point. (R15.05-1)

COMPLIANCE: The flexible behavior of a robot or any associated tool in response to external forces exerted on it. When the behavior is independent of sensory feedback, it is passive compliance; if not, it is active compliance. (ISO 8373)

COMPRESSION BENDING: With a bending machine, the operation in which the material is bent by being wrapped around a bending form while being retained in compression by one or more wiping dies. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CONCURRENT: Acting in conjunction, and is used to describe a situation wherein two or more controls exist in an operated condition at the same time (but not necessarily simultaneously).

CONDUIT: A tube or trough in which insulated wires and cables are run.

CONDUIT, INTERMEDIATE METAL: A metal raceway of circular cross section with integral or associated couplings, connectors, and fittings approved for the installation of electrical conductors. (NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.)

CONDUIT, RIGID METAL: A raceway specially constructed for the purpose of the pulling in or the withdrawing of wires or cables after the conduit is in place and made of metal pipe of standard weight and thickness permitting the cutting of standard threads. (ANSI/IEEE Standard No. 100-1988)

CONDUIT, RIGID NONMETALLIC: A type of conduit and fittings of suitable nonmetallic material that is resistant to moisture and chemical atmospheres, flame retardant, resistant to impact and crushing, and resistant to distortion from heat or low temperatures under conditions likely to be encountered in service. (NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.)

CONES: Tapered projections used in pairs to provide internal support of a coil. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CONFIGURATION: A set of joint displacement values, equal in number to the number of principal joints, that completely determine the mechanical position of the manipulator. (R15.07)

CONFIGURATION: A set of joint displacement values, equal in number to the number of primary axes, that completely determine the shape of the arm at any time. (ISO 8373)

CONNECTION: A connection member between a rotating drive member, such as a crank, and a reciprocating member, such as a slide. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CONTACT:  A conducting part that co-acts with another conducting part to make or break a circuit.

CONTACT FULL TRAVEL: The contact full travel includes tolerances and contact consumption.

CONTACT GAP: The distance between the contact surfaces after opening of the contact required for assured separation (at least 2 x 1.25mm).

: A heavy duty relay used to repeatedly establish and interrupt an electrical power circuit.

CONTAINER: With a horizontal hydraulic extrusion presses, the press component that confines the billet during the extrusion process.

CONTINUOUS: Uninterrupted multiple strokes of the slide without intervening stops (or other clutch control action) at the end of individual strokes.

CONTINUOUS CYCLING: Multiple cycles with intervening stops at the end of individual cycles. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CONTINUOUS MODE: Continuous cycling, initiated by an operator, and maintained by the (machine) control system, without further operator interaction. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CONTINUOUS PATH CONTROL: A control procedure whereby the user can impose to the robot the path to be followed between commanded poses at a programmed velocity. (ISO 8373)

: Range of difference between light and dark values in an image. Usually expressed as a contrast ratio, i.e., the ratio between the higher object transmittance or background transmittance to the lower of object transmittance or background transmittance. NOTE: Contrast - (B1 - B2) / B1 (100) where: B is the brightness; B1 is the brighter of two contrasting fields; B2 is the darker of two contrasting fields. (R15.02)

CONTROL CIRCUIT: The circuit of a control apparatus or system that carries the electric signals directing the performance of the controller but does not carry the main power current. (NFPA 70, National Electrical Code.)

CONTROL CIRCUIT TRANSFORMER: A voltage transformer utilized to supply a voltage suitable for the operation of control devices. (ANSI/IEEE Standard No. 100-1988.)

CONTROL CIRCUIT VOLTAGE: The voltage provided for the operation of shunt coil magnetic devices.

: See control reliability. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CONTROL CONSOLE: A free-standing master operator station. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CONTROL DEVICE: Any piece of control hardware providing a means for human intervention in the control of a robot or robot system, such as an emergency-stop button, a start button, or a selector switch. (R15.06)

CONTROL DEVICE: Device connected into the control circuit and used for controlling the operation of the machine (e.g., position sensors, manual control switches, relays, magnetically operated valves.

: The stopping of machine motion by reducing the command signal to zero (0) but retaining power to the machine

: The inherent set of control instructions which defines the capabilities, actions, and responses of a robot system. This type of program is fixed and usually not modified by the user. (ISO 8373)

CONTROL RELIABILITY: Control Reliability is required on all safety circuits according to ANSI B.11.10, U.L. 1740 and the draft RIA 1506 standard. The elements of control reliability include:
 1. Single fault detection
  (a) Any single fault will:
  * be detected
  * still provide a stop signal
  * require failure correction
 2. It is no simply redundancy
 3. Self-checking
Detect single failure and still the device/system can signal a stop

CONTROL RELIABILITY: A method f ensuring the integrity of performance of control systems, including guards and safeguarding devices that interface with the control system. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CONTROL SYSTEM: A set of logic control and power functions which allows to monitor the mechanical structure of the robot and to communicate with the environment (equipment and users). (ISO 8373)

CONTROL SYSTEM: Sensors, manual input and mode selection elements, interlocking and decision-making circuitry, and output elements to the press operating mechanism. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

CONTROLLER: An information processing device whose inputs are both desired and measured position, velocity or other pertinent variables in a process and whose outputs are drive signals to a controlling motor or actuator. (R15.02)

CONVERSION: The taking of other than a P/M press and making it into a P/M press. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

COOLANT: Fluid directed onto the material or workpiece and tool to dissipate heat. (B-11 Definitions Manual)

COORDINATE TRANSFORMATION: The process of changing the coordinates of a pose from one coordinate system to another. (ISO 8373)

COORDINATED STRAIGHT LINE MOTION: Control wherein the axes of the robot arrive at their respective end points simultaneously, giving a smooth appearance to the motion. Control wherein the motions of the axes are such that the tool center point (TCP) moves along a pre-specified type of path (line, circle, or other). (R15.06)

COPING/NOTCHING STATION: On an ironworker, the work station at which material from the edge or periphery of the workpiece is sheared. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
CORNER ROUNDING: A type of behavior exhibited by a robot when transitioning between path segments while not stopping at the vertex of the path segments. (R15.06)

CONTACTOR: A heavy-duty industrial relay which is used to switch power to a power circuit.

COUNTER-BALANCE: The mechanism that is used to balance or support the weight of the connecting rods, slide, and slide attachments.

CRITICAL: Any component which is safety-related or one which, if it fails, will cause the robot to stop while in its continuous run mode or which is necessary for proper robot operation and control. (R15.05-3)

CSA: Canadian Standards Association.

CURRENT: The rate of transfer of electricity per unit time. The standard unit is the ampere.

CURRENT-CARRY CAPACITY: The specified current that a wire, cable, or contact is able to continuously conduct with causing permanent deterioration of electrical or mechanical properties of a device or conductor.

CYCLE: A single execution of a complete set of moves and functions contained within a robot program. (R15.05-2)

CYCLE TIME: Time required to perform the cycle. (ISO 8373)

CYLINDRICAL ROBOT: A robot whose arm has at least one rotary and at least one prismatic joint and whose axes form a cylindrical coordinate system. 9ISO 8373)


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