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|Page: Glossary P-R|
: An assembly of two insulated
single conductors twisted together. (R15.01)
PANEL: The surface of a pendant used for mounting controls and displays. (R15.02)
PARALLEL ROBOT: A robot whose arms (primary axes) have three concurrent prismatic joints. (ISO 8373)
PARAMETERS - MOTION CONTROL: The controller variables which facilitate fine adjustment of path performance. These values are sometimes referred to as "system parameters". (R15.05-2)
PART REVOLUTION CLUTCH: A type of clutch that can be disengaged at any point before the crankshaft has completed a full revolution and the press slide a full stroke.
PATH: An ordered set of poses. (ISO 8373)
PATH: The continuous locus of positions traversed by the tool center point and described in a specified coordinate system. (R15.05-2)
PATH ACCELERATION: The rate of velocity per unit time along the path. (ISO 8373)
PATH ACCURACY: Difference between a command path and its attained path. (ISO 8373)
PATH - BARYCENTER: The path defined by mean values at each evaluation point. (R15.05-2)
PATH - CIRCULAR: A theoretical arc which passes through three contiguous command points and maintains continuity at each end point between adjacent circular path segments. (R15.05-2)
PATH - CONTROL: The adjustment of path positioning and accuracy through hardware and/or software in the robot controller. (R15.05-2)
PATH - EVALUATION POINTS: Points on the referenced path which correspond to specific evaluation locations. Linear interpolation between measured points shall be used to estimate actual path evaluation points. (R15.05-2)
PATH - LINEAR: A theoretical linear segment between to command points. (R15.05-2)
PATH - REFERENCE: A path used as datum for comparison to another path. (R15.05-2)
PATH REPEATABILITY: Closeness of the agreement between multiple attained paths for the same command path. (ISO 8373)
PATH - SEGMENT: A portion of a path between two more command points. (R15.05-2)
PATH VELOCITY: The change of motion per unit time along the path. (ISO 8373)
PATH VELOCITY ACCURACY: Difference between a command path velocity and the mean of the attained path velocity when traversing a command path. (ISO 8373)
PATH VELOCITY FLUCTUATION: The difference between the minimum and maximum velocities which results from traversing a given command path with a given command velocity. (ISO 8373)
PATH VELOCITY REPEATABILITY: Closeness of agreement of the velocities attained for a given command path velocity. (ISO 8373)
PAYLOAD - MAXIMUM: The maximum mass that the robot can manipulate at a specified speed, acceleration/deceleration, center of gravity location (offset), and repeatability under continuous operation over a specified working space. Maximum payload is to be specified in kilograms. (R1505-2)
PAYLOAD - RATED: The mass that the robot is designed to manipulate under the manufacturer's specified performance conditions of speed, acceleration/deceleration and duty cycle over the entire working space. The center of gravity of the payload to be at offsets specified by the manufacturer. Rated payload is to be specified in kilograms. (R15.05-2)
PAYLOAD - TEST: A mass equivalent to a steel cube whose center of gravity is located at some axial and radial offset. (R15.05-2)
PEDAL: A foot operated mechanical actuating control. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PENDANT: Any portable control device, including teach pendants, that permits an operator to control the robot from within the restricted envelope (space) of the robot. (R15.06)
PENDANT (TEACH PENDANT): A hand-held unit linked to the control system with which a robot can be programmed or moved. (ISO 8373)
PENDULAR ROBOT: A polar robot whose mechanical structure includes a universal joint pivoting subassembly. (ISO 8373)
PERIMETER GUARDING: A rigid fence-like structure that surrounds the restricted envelope (space) of a system of one or more robots and may have entry openings for process equipment, material, and/or personnel authorized to operate or maintain the robot system. (R15.06)
PERSONNEL: Individuals who are employed by the user.
PIERCING: The process of producing a hole or recess in the material or workpiece by forcing a tool into or through the material or workpiece, to form a hole the shape of the tool by shearing action. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PINCH POINT: Any point other than the point of operation at which it is possible for a part of the body to be caught between the moving parts of a press or auxiliary equipment, or between moving and stationary parts of a press or auxiliary equipment or between the material and moving parts of the press or auxiliary equipment.
PIVOT JOINT: An assembly between two links which enables one to pivot relative to the other about a fixed point in three degrees of freedom. (ISO 8373)
PLACING ON THE MARKET: The moment a product first passes from the stage of manufacturing within the community to the stage of distribution and/or use within the community market.
PLATE: Flat material having dimensions of over 3/8 inch thickness and 8 inches or more in width. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PLATEN: With a P/M press, a member or die set used for mounting or attaching the individual tool elements contained in a die set. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PLATFORM: An elevated work surface above the surrounding floor or ground. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
P/M: Powdered metal. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
P/M PART: With a P/M press, a compacted part starting from metallic or non-metallic powder, being formed or compressed into a specific shape and used as pressed "green", exposed to additional operations, such as coining, sizing, et cetera, to improve the mechanical bond of the particles to improve the dimensional characteristics of the part or to further densify the part, or the P/M part can be sintered to improve the strength characteristics of the part. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PLAYBACK (RECORD PLAYBACK) ROBOT: A robot that can repeat a task program which is entered through teach programming. (ISO 8373)
PNEUMATIC POWER PRESS: An air or gas powered machine that shears, punches, forms, draws, or assembles material by means of dies actuated by a slide. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
POINT - EVALUATION: A discrete measured (or sampled) position of the tool center point along the attained path traversed by the robot. (R15.05-2)
POINT OF ENTRY: The openings(s) of a [machine] through which the material or workpiece is placed [inserted] for processing. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
POINT OF OPERATION: The area of the press where material is actually positioned and work is being performed during any process such as shearing, punching, forming, or assembling.
POLAR (SPHERICAL) ROBOT: A robot whose arm has two rotary joints and one prismatic joint and whose axes form a polar coordinate system. (ISO 8373)
PORTABLE: Capable of being carried or moved about by an individual without mechanical assistance. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
POSE: A combination of position and orientation in space. (ISO 8373)
POSE ACCURACY (UNIDIRECTIONAL) : Difference between a command pose and the mean of the attained poses when visiting the command pose from the same direction. (ISO 8373)
POSE OVERSHOOT: Maximum distance between the approach path and the attained pose after the robot has given the "in position" signal. (ISO 8373)
POSE REPEATABIITY (UNIDIRECTIONAL): Closeness of agreement among the attained poses for the same command pose repeated from the same direction. (ISO 8373)
POSE STABILIZATION TIME: Period of time which elapses between the instant at which the robot gives the "in position" signal and the instant at which the damped oscillatory motion or the damped motion of the mechanical interface is within a specified limit. (ISO 8373)
POSE-TO-POSE CONTROL: A control procedure whereby the user can only impose to the robot to pass by the command poses without fixing the path to be followed between the poses. (ISO 8373)
POSITION: A set of translation values X, Y, Z in a coordinate system. (R15.07)
POSITION - CONTROL: The adjustment of the path positioning accuracy through hardware or software in the robot controller. (R15.05-2)
POSITION REPEATABILITY: The difference between achieved test point locations in the same direction. (R15.05-1)
POSITIONAL ACCURACY: The difference between achieved and command test point ocations. (R15.05-1)
POSITIONS: The three-dimensional location of the test point defined by the three translation parameters X, Y, Z. (R15.05-2)
prEN: Preliminary European Norm.
PRESENCE SENSING DEVICES: Presence sensing devices are used to detect personnel and generate a signal used to prevent exposure to a hazard. The most common types or presence sensing devices are light screens, safety mats, bumpers, optical scanning devices.
PRESENCE SENSING DEVICE INITIATION: An operating mode of indirect manual initiation of a single stroke by a presence sensing device when it senses that work motions of the operator, related to feeding and/or removing parts, are completed and all parts of the operator's body or hand tools are safely clear of the point of operation.
PRESENCE-SENSING SAFEGUARDING DEVICE: A device designed, constructed and installed to create a sensing field or area to detect an intrusion into such field or area by personnel, robots, or other objects. (R15.06)
PRESS: A mechanically powered machine that shears, punches, forms or assembles metal or other material by means of cutting, shaping, or combination dies attached to slides. A press consists of a stationary bed or anvil, and a slide (or slides) having a controlled reciprocating motion toward and away from the bed surface, the slide being guided in a definite path by the frame of the press.
PRESS PRODUCTION SYSTEM: The press(es), tooling, methods of feeding, auxiliary equipment and safeguarding set up for production. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PRESS SHUTHEIGHT: The distance from the bed surface to the slide face, with the slide in its closed position and the slide adjustment up (SDAU). (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PRESS WELDER: A pneumatically powered gap frame press that positions parts for joining by means of resistance welding. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PRESSURE DIE: With a bending machine, the tooling used in conjunction with the rotating bending form die too retain compression of the material during the bending operation. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PRINCIPAL JOINT: A joint which is a member of a serial portion of the articulated kinematic chain without regard to how the joint is actuated. (R15.07)
PRISMATIC (SLIDING) JOINT: An assembly between two links enabling one to have a linear motion relative to the other. (ISO 8373)
PROBE: A device that detects the presence of the material or workpiece by pressure, contact, electronic or electro-optical means. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PRODUCTION SYSTEM: A [machine] equipped and set up for productive operations. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PROGRAM: 1. (n) A sequence of instructions to be executed by the computer or robot controller to control a robot/robot system. 2. (v) To furnish (a computer) with a code of instruction. 3. (v) To teach a robot system a specific set of movements and instructions to accomplish a task. (R15.06)
PROGRAMMABLE ELECTRONIC SYSTEM: An electronic system that performs logical, decision-making or arithmetic functions by executing instructions in a specific manner. The system usually includes input and output element (ports) and is usually reprogrammable. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PROGRAMMABLE LOGICAL CONTROLLER (PLC): A solid state control system which has a user programmable memory for storage of instructions to implement specific functions such as: I/O control logic, timing, counting arithmetic, and data manipulation. A PLC consists of a central processor, input/output interface, memory, and programming device which typically uses relay equivalent symbols. The PLC is purposely designed as an industrial control system with can perform functions equivalent to a relay panel or a wired solid state logic control system.
PROGRAMMED POSE: The desired position and orientation of the Tool Coordinate System (TCS) which is entered into the controller through explicit pose-to-pose or path programming. (R15.07)
PROGRAMMER: A person designated to prepare the task program. (ISO 8373)
PROGRESSIVE BENDING: With a bending machine, the forming of a number of bends in the same or different plane or angle, one after another, on a single workpiece at one station. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PULL-BACK DEVICE: A safeguarding device with attachments for the operators hands and wrists and connected to the moving portion of the slide; that when properly adjusted, prevents the operator from reaching into the point of operation, or withdraws the operator's hands from the point of operation, during the hazardous motion of the slide. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PULL-OUT DEVICE: A mechanism attached to the operator's hands and connected to the upper die or slide of the press, that is designed, when properly adjusted, to withdraw the operator's hands as the dies close, if the operator's hands are inadvertently within the point of operation.
PUMP: A device to move or compress fluids. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PUNCH: The male part of the die. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PUNCHING STATION: On an ironworker, the work station at which punching operations are normally performed. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
PUTTING INTO SERVICE: The first use of a product within the community, covered by a directive.
: An assembly of four insulated single conductors twisted
: The inclination of one blade with respect to the other in the
shearing plane. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
RAPID TRAVERSE: On a lathe, the mode that imparts to the tool-carrying slide(s) a rate of speed that is much higher than the feed rate. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
REBUILDER: Any supplier that restores the [machine] or production system to its original design, purpose, capacity and function. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
RECOVERY TIME: For the perfect functioning of the device, the actual value may not fall below the specified value.
REBUILD: To restore the robot to the original specifications of the manufacturer to the extent possible. (R15.06)
REBUILDING: Restoring the [machine] or production system to its original design, purpose, capacity and function. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
RECTANGULAR (CARTESIAN) ROBOT: A robot whose arm has three prismatic joints, whose axes are coincident with a Cartesian coordinate system. Example: Gantry robot. (ISO 8373)
REGULATED PRODUCT: Any aspect of a product which is governed by one or more technical regulations or directives. It is sometimes misleading to refer to "regulated" or "non-regulated" sectors. Some elements of directives or regulations affect almost all sectors, but at the same time almost all sectors have some aspects which remain unregulated. A regulated product usually means an EC certificate is mandatory (refer to mandatory certification).
RELIABILITY: The probability that a device will function without failure over a specified time period or amount of usage. (R15.02)
REMANUFACTURE: To upgrade or modify robots to the revised specifications of the manufacturer. (R15.06)
REMOTE CONTROL: A control mode where the [machine] or production system is operated from a location that is external to the [machine] or system. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
REPAIR: To restore robots and robot systems to operating condition after damage, malfunction or wear. (R15.06)
REPEAT: An unintended or unexpected successive stroke of the press resulting from a malfunction.
RESOLUTION: The smallest increment of movement that can be attained by each axis of the robot. (ISO 8373)
RESTRAINT DEVICE: A safeguarding device with attachments for the operator's hands and wrists that prevent the operator from reaching into the point of operation at all times. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
RFI: Radio frequency interference (RFI) is interference caused by electromagnetic radiation at radio frequencies to sensors or to other sensitive electronic circuitry. RFI may originate from radio control equipment, stepper motor controls, CRT's, computers, walkie-talkies, etc.
RIGHT-HAND RULE SIGN DIRECTION CONVENTION: A sign convention for assigning the direction of a rotating body. The right hand can be visualized as wrapping around the axis of rotation with the thumb pointing in the positive direction. The fingers of the right hand would then point in the positive direction of rotation (counterclockwise). (R15.05-1, R15.05-2)
RIGHT-HANDED CARTESIAN COORDINATE SYSTEM: A coordinate system that has its axes perpendicular to each other (mutually orthogonal) such that if the thumb, index, and middle fingers of the right hand were positioned at right angles to indicate direction, the X-direction would point along the index finger, the Y-direction would point along the middle finger, and the Z-direction would point along the thumb. (R15.05-1, R15.05-2)
RISK: Is an estimation of the exposure to a hazard and the potential severity of injury or illness.
RIVETING MACHINE: A powdered machine for inserting and clinching fasteners such as rivets. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
ROBOT SIGNATURE: The effects which cause a variation in performance for a given robot relative to its nominal robot model. (R15.07)
ROBOT SIMULATION: A method for emulating and predicting the behavior and the operation of a robotic system based on the model (e.g. computer graphics) of the physical system. (R15.07)
ROLLING: The process of forming or improving the surface of gear teeth by rotating the gear with the teeth in controlled contact with a circular or flat tool. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
ROTARY LIMIT SWITCH: A [machine] driven rotating control device that initiates, maintains or interrupts control functions based on [machine] position. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
ROTARY SLITTER KNIVES: The upper and lower rotary tool, mounted on the arbors of the slitter, that cuts the material being processed. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
RUN: The operating mode(s) that produces single cycle or continuous operation of a [machine]. (B-11 Definitions Manual)
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